Database Answers American Toilets
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Data Models for Toilets 
An Access Database is available.
This is an example of a Bill of Materials Design Pattern and shows how we use the Pattern in practice.
This material is laid out as a Tutorial and supplements our page of Tutorials.
It will help you understand the thinking behind the construction of a simple Data Model.

My Approach
My purpose is to design a simple Datababase for a Toilet.
My first Step is to establish a top-level view from the Head Office.
Then Step 2 defines a Business Data Model which shows how the things we are interested in can be integrated with the Head Office.
Then for Step 3 I obtain a photo that helps me understand a visual perspective of the database functionality,
Then in Step 4 I design A Conceptual Data Model
which is very useful for discussion with business users.
Then I design the Logical Data Model
Finally I create the Physical Model which I use to create the Database.
Step 1 - View from Head Office

Toilet Simple
Step 2 - Review Business Data Model

Toilet Simple
Step 3 - I start with a Photograph of the Toilet

Toilet Simple
Step 4 - Then I find a Drawing of a Standard Toilet
This is based on the American Standard Toilets Parts Diagram
and helps me to identify the separate parts that I use in my Data Model.

Img 2 - Parts Diagram
Step 5 - Then I design a Conceptual Data Model
for the Diagram in Step 2.
I have added the Toilet Lid and Seat because
they don't appear in the American Standards Diagram.

Img 4 - Parts Diagram
Step 6 - I simplify the Conceptual Data Model
I generalise the Model by replacing specific Components by generic Components.
In this case, it means replacing Lid and Seat, Tank and Bowl by 'Assemblies',
and Trip Lever by 'Components'.

Simple Conceptual Data Model
Step 7 - Then I create a Realistic Logical Model

Img 2 - Parts Diagram
Step 8 - Then I create the Physical Model to generate the Database.

Physical Data Model
Step 9 - Finally, we produce Templates to create CSV Files.

Physical Data Model


Barry Williams
Principal Consultant
Database Answers Ltd.
London, England
November 12th. 2018


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